Ramen

The origin story of this cult noodle soup is surprisingly complex, with links to Chinese-Japanese immigration and mid-century American wheat production. Today, ramen is a national obsession that inspire hours-long lines, international chefs’ acclaim and, most recently, a Michelin star. The category is vast, but most bowls start with pork-, chicken-, miso-, salt-based broth atop a spoonful of tare, or potent flavor bomb. Soup contents span pork belly, alkali noodles, soft-boiled eggs, nori, preserved vegetables and, in the case of Hokkaido in northern Japan, butter and corn. (Seriously.) Wherever you sit, slurping is expected and encouraged.

Onigri

A bento box fixture, onigiri are starchy snacks made from leftover sushi rice and pretty much anything else the cook has on hand. Grains of rice are shaped into a ball, lightly salted and either filled or decorated (smiley faces are both popular and prevalent) with bits of vegetables, broiled fish, seasoned seaweed or pickled plum. As far as austerity eating goes, it doesn’t get much more clever or crowd-pleasing than this.

Soba

For noodle fans seeking a healthy, elegant complement to bowls of chewy udon or alkali ramen, the buckwheat stops here. Soba noodles have a similar circumference to spaghetti, and can be served cold, as a noodle salad accompanied by a broth-based dipping sauce (called mori or zaru soba), within a hot bowl of duck-based broth dappled with stewed leeks (kamo nanban soba), or as a simple side to a plate of tempura.

Mochi

According to the mochi trade (it’s a thing), Japanese diners consume an average of 1 kg of mochi per year, mostly in January. The sticky, chewy delicacy is a New Year tradition, and it is served at family homes and New Year’s parties toasted and drizzled with sweetened soy, wrapped in dried seaweed or coated with sesame seeds. Though Western diners may associate mochi with marshmallows, gummy candies or other sweets, it is actually made from pounded rice cakes. Delicious and occasionally deadly, mochi is best consumed in small portions, with a tall glass of sake within arm’s reach.

Tempura

Americans may use this term to describe a type of frying preparation (as in, “Try the tempura-battered shrimp!”), but, in Japan, tempura is a dish unto itself. Seafood, vegetables or a holy alliance of the two are coated in a crisp batter typically made from flour, sesame oil and ice water, and then deep-fried to a shade of golden deliciousness that would make Colonel Sanders blush. The crisp, crunchy fare is frequently served alongside soba noodles, dipping sauces and shredded cabbage, the cole slaw of the East.

Kaiseki

Kyoto’s elegant tasting menus will knock you off your counter stool. Kaiseki is a style of dining in which delicately plated, simply prepared foods are presented slowly, carefully and artfully. Courses might consist of a lobster hot pot, seasonal sashimi, or simply a perfect, sliced peach on hand-crafted pottery.